General Resources

Implementation and De-prescribing

  1. Clinical Guidelines. Society of Metabolic Health Practitioners. Hite et al. 
  2. Low-Carbohydrate Nutrition Approaches in Patients with Obesity, Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes – Low Carb Nutrition – Queen’s Units. Guidelines. 
  3. Antonia. A simple model to find patient hope for positive lifestyle changes: GRIN. British Holistic Medical Association.  PDF 
  4. Cucuzzella M, Riley K, Isaacs D. Adapting Medication for Type 2 Diabetes to a Low Carbohydrate Diet. Front Nutr. 2021;0. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.688540
  5. Murdoch C, Unwin D, Cavan D, Cucuzzella M, Patel M. Adapting diabetes medication for low carbohydrate management of type 2 diabetes: a practical guide. Br J Gen Pract. 2019;69(684):360-361. doi:10.3399/bjgp19X704525 
  6. Zinn C, North S, Donovan K, Muir C, Henderson G. Low-carbohydrate, healthy-fat eating: A cost comparison with national dietary guidelines. Nutr Diet. April 2019. doi:10.1111/1747-0080.12534
  7. Kalra S, Singla R, Rosha R, Sharma S, Surana V, Kalra B. Pre ketogenic diet counselling. J Pak Med Assoc. 2019;69(4):592-594. PMID: 31000870 PDF
  8. Cucuzzella, M., Hite, A., Patterson, K., Heath, L.S.& R., 2019. A clinician’s guide to inpatient low carbohydrate diets for remission of type 2 diabetes : toward a standard of care protocol. Diabetes Management 9, 7–19. ISSN 1758-1907 PDF
  9.  Kelly T, Unwin D, Finucane F. Low-Carbohydrate Diets in the Management of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Review from Clinicians Using the Approach in Practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(7):2557. doi:10.3390/ijerph17072557 (Infographics development paper – doi:10.4102/jir.v1i1.8)
  10. Unwin D, Khalid AA, Unwin J, et al. Insights from a general practice service evaluation supporting a lower carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes: a secondary analysis of routine clinic data including HbA1c, weight and prescribing over 6 years. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. 2020;3(2). doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000072 
  11. Griauzde DH, Standafer Lopez K, Saslow LR, Richardson CR. A Pragmatic Approach to Translating Low- and Very Low-Carbohydrate Diets Into Clinical Practice for Patients With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Front Nutr. 2021;8:682137. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.682137
  12. Cupit C, Redman E. Supporting people to implement a reduced carbohydrate diet: a qualitative study in family practice. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. Published online May 10, 2021:bmjnph. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000240
  13. Saslow LR, Moskowitz JT, Mason AE, et al. Intervention Enhancement Strategies Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in a Very Low–Carbohydrate Web-Based Program: Evaluating the Impact With a Randomized Trial. JMIR Diabetes. 2020;5(3):e15835. doi:10.2196/15835
  14. Tay J, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Nutritional adequacy of very low- and high-carbohydrate, low saturated fat diets in adults with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of a 2-year randomised controlled trial. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2020;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108501
  16. Aronica L, Volek J, Poff A, D’agostino DP. Genetic variants for personalised management of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets. BMJNPH. Published online December 12, 2020:bmjnph-2020-000167. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000167
  17. Honza. Vyjidak (2021) Beating Diabetes with Food – Abbott ebook. Neslazeno. Published January 23, 2021. 

Remote Care and Group Settings (Covid-19 experience, Zoom and Health App based)

  1. Jooste, B.R. et al. (2023) ‘Effectiveness of Technology-Enabled, Low Carbohydrate Dietary Interventions, in the Prevention or Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A Systematic Literature Review of Randomised Controlled and Non-Randomised Trials’, Nutrients, 15(20). Available at:
  2. Walker L, Smith N, Delon C. Weight loss, hypertension and mental well-being improvements during COVID-19 with a multicomponent health promotion programme on Zoom: a service evaluation in primary care. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. Published online February 13, 2021:bmjnph. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000219   PDF
  3. Saslow, L.R. et al. (2018) ‘Outcomes of a Digitally Delivered Low-Carbohydrate Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Program: 1-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study’, JMIR Diabetes, 3(3), p. e9333. Available at:
  4. Summers C, Tobin S, Unwin D. Evaluation of the Low Carb Program Digital Intervention for the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes in an NHS England General Practice: Single-Arm Prospective Study. JMIR Diabetes. 2021;6(3):e25751. doi:10.2196/25751
  5. Hanson P, Summers C, Panesar A, et al. Low Carb Program Health App Within a Hospital-Based Obesity Setting: Observational Service Evaluation. JMIR Formative Research. 2021;5(9):e29110. doi:10.2196/29110
  6. Kossoff EH, Turner Z, Adams J, et al. Ketogenic diet therapy provision in the COVID-19 pandemic: Dual-center experience and recommendations. Epilepsy Behav. 2020;111:107181. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107181
  7. Semprino M, Fasulo L, Fortini S, et al. Telemedicine, drug-resistant epilepsy, and ketogenic dietary therapies: A patient survey of a pediatric remote-care program during the COVID-19 pandemic. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2020;112:107493. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107493
  8. Scott E, Shehata M, Panesar A, Summers C, Dale J. The low carb program for people with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes – a mixed methods feasibility study of signposting from general practice. BJGP Open. Published online September 24, 2021. doi:10.3399/BJGPO.2021.0137 
  9. Oliver D, Andrews K. Brief intervention of low carbohydrate dietary advice: clinic results and a review of the literature. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 2021;28(5):496–502. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000665   (Android &  iOS  Freshwell app – 6 weeks of modules to help with implementation)
  10. Ergenç, H. et al. (2021) ‘Investigating The Impact of Educational Interventions and Ketogenic Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients’, Translational and Clinical Medicine – Georgian Medical Journal, 6(2), pp. 4–8. PDF
  11. Birrell, F., Collen, D. and Gray, M. (2023) ‘Scaling group consultations – the fourth healthcare revolution: A call to action to save primary care’, Lifestyle Medicine, 4(3), p. e80. Available at:

Low Resource Settings

  1. Pujol-Busquets, G. et al. (2023) ‘Community Assessment for a Low-Carbohydrate Nutrition Education Program in South Africa’, Nutrients, 15(1), p. 67. Available at:
  2. Pujol-Busquets, G. et al. (2020) ‘Exploring the Perceptions of Women from Under-Resourced South African Communities about Participating in a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Nutrition and Health Education Program: A Qualitative Focus Group Study’, Nutrients, 12(4), p. 894. doi:10.3390/nu12040894.
  3. Sharma, S. (2021) ‘Dietary therapies for epilepsy in low resource settings: challenges and successes’, Journal of the International Child Neurology Association, 1(1). doi:10.17724/jicna.2021.212.
  4. Goyal, A. et al. (2020) ‘Proposed guidelines for screening of hyperglycemia in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low resource settings’, Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, 14(5), pp. 753–756. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.039.
  5. He, J. et al. (2017) ‘The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(2). doi:10.3390/ijerph14020158.
  6. Samia, P. et al. (2021) ‘Qualitative exploration of feasibility and acceptability of the modified ketogenic dietary therapy for children with drug-resistant epilepsy in Kenya’, Epilepsy & Behavior, 125. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108362. (under-resourced)

Hospital Based Therapeutic Carbohydrate Restriction Interventions

This collection covers a range of applications and conditions.


  1. Hajjar, J. et al. (2023) ‘The role of low-carbohydrate diets in the intensive care unit’, Nutrition and Health, 29(3), pp. 377–381. Available at:
  2. Watson, N., McClelland, T.J. and Puthucheary, Z. (2023) ‘Is there a role for ketones as alternative fuel in critical illness?’, Current Opinion in Critical Care [Preprint]. Available at:
  3. Tavarez, T., Roehl, K. and Koffman, L. (2021) ‘Nutrition in the Neurocritical Care Unit: a New Frontier’, Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 23(5). doi:10.1007/s11940-021-00670-8.
  4. Thompson, L. et al. (2017) ‘Use of the ketogenic diet in the neonatal intensive care unit-Safety and tolerability’, Epilepsia, 58(2), pp. e36–e39. doi:10.1111/epi.13650.
  5. Gunst, J. et al. (2021) ‘Role of ketones, ketogenic diets and intermittent fasting in ICU’, Current Opinion in Critical Care [Preprint]. doi:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000841. ABSTRACT
  6. White, H. et al. (2021) ‘A Systematic Review of Intravenous β-Hydroxybutyrate Use in Humans – A Promising Future Therapy?’, Frontiers in Medicine, 8. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.740374.
  7. J. Geoffrey Chase, Jennifer Launa Knopp (2020) ‘Understanding insulin and nutrition administration in glycemic control with the right side of the brain’. doi:10.21203/
  8. Scott, S.H. et al. (2019) ‘Doubt about pre-operative carbohydrate supplementation’, Anaesthesia, 74(4), pp. 540–541. doi:10.1111/anae.14618.
  9. Colangeli, L., Gentileschi, P., Sbraccia, P., Guglielmi, V., 2022. Ketogenic Diet for Preoperative Weight Reduction in Bariatric Surgery: A Narrative Review. Nutrients 14, 3610.


  1. Albanese, A. et al. (2019) ‘Pre-operative Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) vs. Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD): Surgical Impact’, Obesity Surgery, 29(1), pp. 292–296. doi:10.1007/s11695-018-3523-2.
  2. Bui, P.H. et al. (2023) ‘Propofol for anesthesia in pediatric patients with epilepsy on the Ketogenic diet: A single center experience’, Pediatric Neurology [Preprint]. Available at:
  3. Banholzer, N. et al. (2020), ‘Effect of nutrition on postprandial glucose control in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes receiving fully automated closed-loop insulin therapy’, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/dom.14187.
  4. Goossens, C. et al. (2021) ‘Altered cholesterol homeostasis in critical illness-induced muscle weakness: effect of exogenous 3-hydroxybutyrate’, Critical Care, 25(1), p. 252. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03688-1.
  5. Hanson, P. et al. (2021) ‘Low Carb Program Health App Within a Hospital-Based Obesity Setting: Observational Service Evaluation’, JMIR Formative Research, 5(9), p. e29110. doi:10.2196/29110.
  6. Albanese A, Prevedello L, Markovich M, Busetto L, Vettor R, Foletto M. Pre-operative Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) vs. Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD): Surgical Impact. Obes Surg. 2019;29(1):292-296. doi:10.1007/s11695-018-3523-2 ABSTRACT

Enteral Nutrition

  1. Eckert, I. et al. (2021) ‘Association of specialized enteral nutrition with glycemic control and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials’, Clinical Nutrition [Preprint]. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.030. ABSTRACT
  2. Nourmohammadi, M. et al. (2022) ‘High-fat low-carbohydrate enteral feeding enriched with olive oil and acute respiratory failure: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial’, Clinical Nutrition ESPEN [Preprint]. Available at:
  3. Parker, E.K. et al. (2021) ‘A standard enteral formula versus an iso-caloric lower carbohydrate/high fat enteral formula in the hospital management of adolescent and young adults admitted with anorexia nervosa: a randomised controlled trial’, Journal of Eating Disorders, 9(1), p. 160. doi:10.1186/s40337-021-00513-6.
  4. Abd El Sabour Faramawy, M. et al. (2014) ‘Impact of high fat low carbohydrate enteral feeding on weaning from mechanical ventilation’, Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 63(4), pp. 931–938. doi:10.1016/j.ejcdt.2014.07.004.
  5. Doola, R. et al. (2019) ‘The effect of a low carbohydrate formula on glycaemia in critically ill enterally-fed adult patients with hyperglycaemia: A blinded randomised feasibility trial’, Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 31, pp. 80–87. doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2019.02.013. ABSTRACT
  6. Nishiwaki, S. et al. (2020) ‘Use of a Low-carbohydrate Enteral Nutrition Formula with Effective Inhibition of Hypoglycemia and Post-infusion Hyperglycemia in Non-diabetic Patients Fed via a Jejunostomy Tube’, Internal Medicine, advpub. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.4465-20.
  7. Burslem, R. et al. (2021) ‘Low-carbohydrate, high-fat enteral formulas for managing glycemic control in patients who are critically ill: A review of the evidence’, Nutrition in Clinical Practice: Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [Preprint]. doi:10.1002/ncp.10652. ABSTRACT
  8. Cappello, G., Franceschelli, A., Cappello, A. and Luca, P.D. (2012) ‘Ketogenic enteral nutrition as a treatment for obesity: short term and long term results from 19,000 patients’. Nutrition & Metabolism 2012,9:96 
  9. Cappello, G., Franceschelli, A., Cappello, A. and De Luca, P. (2012) ‘Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition’, Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 17(12), pp. 1114–1118. PMID: 23853627 
  10. Papadia, C. et al. (2019) ‘Therapeutic action of ketogenic enteral nutrition in obese and overweight patients: a retrospective interventional study’, Internal and Emergency Medicine [Preprint]. doi:10.1007/s11739-019-02092-6.   PDF
  11. White, H. et al. (2020) ‘Inducing ketogenesis via an enteral formulation in patients with acute brain injury:a phase II study’, Neurological Research, 0(0), pp. 1–11. doi:10.1080/01616412.2019.1709743. ABSTRACT
  12. Doola, R. et al. (11.2021) ‘The impact of a modified carbohydrate formula, and its constituents, on glycaemic control and inflammatory markers: A nested mechanistic sub-study’, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/jhn.12959. ABSTRACT

Parenteral Nutrition

  1. Haines, K. et al. (no date) ‘Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition: does it matter?’, Current Opinion in Critical Care, p. 10.1097/MCC.0000000000001058. Available at: ABSTRACT
  2. Haines, K.L. et al. (2022) ‘Hospital change to mixed lipid emulsion from soybean oil-based lipid emulsion for parenteral nutrition in hospitalized and critically ill adults improves outcomes: a pre–post-comparative study’, Critical Care, 26(1), p. 317. Available at:
  3. Haines, K.L. et al. (2023) ‘Change to Mixed-Lipid Emulsion From Soybean Oil–Based Lipid Emulsion in Pediatric Patients’, JAMA Network Open, 6(9), p. e2332389. Available at:
  4. Casaer, M.P. et al. (2011) ‘Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Adults’, New England Journal of Medicine, 365(6), pp. 506–517. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1102662. ABSTRACT   
  5. De Bruyn, A. et al. (2021) ‘Impact of withholding early parenteral nutrition in adult critically ill patients on ketogenesis in relation to outcome’, Critical Care, 25(1), p. 102. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03519-3.
  6. H Kossoff, E. (2019) ‘Intravenous ketogenic diet: guidelines for ketogenic parenteral therapy’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology [Preprint]. doi:10.1111/dmcn.14305.   PDF
  7. van der Louw, E. et al. (2019) ‘Optimal clinical management of children receiving ketogenic parenteral nutrition: a clinical practice guide’, Developmental medicine and child neurology, 62. doi:10.1111/dmcn.14306.

Consensus Statements

  1. Association AD (American Diabetes Association). Association AD (American Diabetes Association). ElSayed, N.A., Aleppo, G., Aroda, V.R.,  et al., 2023. 5. Facilitating Positive Health Behaviors and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes: Standards of Care in Diabetes—2023. Diabetes Care 46, S68–S96. (see Table 5.1)
  2. Diabetes Canada Position Statement on Low Carbohydrate Diets for Adults with Diabetes: A Rapid Review. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2020;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2020.04.001
  3. Australian National Diabetes Strategy 2021-2030, Australian Government Department of Health. (2021) Australian Government Department of Health.  (page 18)
  4. Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(5):731-754. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014 (American Diabetes Association)
  5. Position Statements – Diabetes Australia. 2018.
  6. Hallberg SJ, Dockter NE, Kushner JA, Athinarayanan SJ. Improving the scientific rigour of nutritional recommendations for adults with type 2 diabetes: A comprehensive review of the American Diabetes Association guideline-recommended eating patterns. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2019;21(8):1769-1779. doi:10.1111/dom.1373
  7. Hassapidou, M., Vlassopoulos, A., Kalliostra, M.,  et al, 2022. European Association for the Study of Obesity Position Statement on Medical Nutrition Therapy for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults Developed in Collaboration with the European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians. OFA 1–18.
  8. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S102-S138. doi:10.1161/ (Section 3.3. CQ3)
  9. Virani SS, Morris PB, Agarwala A, et al. 2021 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Management of ASCVD Risk Reduction in Patients With Persistent Hypertriglyceridemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 0(0). doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.011 (section 6.1)
  10. Riddle MC, Cefalu WT, Evans PH, et al. Consensus report: definition and interpretation of remission in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. Published online August 30, 2021. doi:10.1007/s00125-021-05542-z
  11. Position statement for healthcare professionals – remission in adults with Type 2 diabetes (2021) Diabetes UK.

Possible Complications

NB Common side effects on initiation and interactions with medications are not included here – see Implementation and De-prescribing

  1. Scientific evidence underlying contraindications to the ketogenic diet: An update – Watanabe – – Obesity Reviews 

There are some examples of complications in the literature. These are rare and there is a paucity of articles which exist mostly in the form of case studies.


In the case of diet/starvation ketoacidosis, there are usually other factors involved such as illness or breastfeeding (or both) which create additional physiological challenges. For a prudent interpretation of the literature regarding breastfeeding, the link below to Dr. Andreas Eenfeldt – Diet Doctor, may be helpful – Breastfeeding on a low-carb diet – is it dangerous? Diet Doctor. 

  1. Iwata H, Tsuzuki S, Iwata M, Terasawa T. Ketoacidosis due to a Low-carbohydrate Diet in an Elderly Woman with Dementia and Abnormal Eating Behaviour. Intern Med. 2017;56(19):2671-2675. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.8689-16   
  2. Larroumet A, Camoin M, Foussard N, et al. Euglycemic ketoacidosis induced by therapeutic fasting in a non-diabetic patient. Nutrition. 2019;72:110668. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2019.110668 ABSTRACT
  3. Freeman TF, Willis B, Krywko DM. Acute intractable vomiting and severe ketoacidosis secondary to the Dukan Diet©. J Emerg Med. 2014;47(4):e109-112. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.06.020 ABSTRACT  

Lactation Ketoacidosis

  1. Alawi AMA, Falhammar H. Lactation ketoacidosis: case presentation and literature review. Case Reports. 2018;2018:bcr-2017-223494. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-223494 ABSTRACT   
  2. Gleeson S, Mulroy E, Clarke DE. Lactation Ketoacidosis: An Unusual Entity and a Review of the Literature. Perm J. 2016;20(2):71-73. doi:10.7812/TPP/15-097  
  3. Nnodum B, Oduah E, Albert D, Pettus M. Ketogenic Diet-induced Severe Ketoacidosis in a Lactating Woman: A Case Report and Review of the Literature (FS17-01-19). Curr Dev Nutr. 2019;3(Supplement_1). doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz035.FS17-01-19 
  4. von Geijer L, Ekelund M. Ketoacidosis associated with low-carbohydrate diet in a non-diabetic lactating woman: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2015;9. doi:10.1186/s13256-015-0709-2  
  5. Sloan G, Ali A, Webster J. A rare cause of metabolic acidosis: ketoacidosis in a non-diabetic lactating woman. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2017;2017. doi:10.1530/EDM-17-0073 

Prurigo Pigmentosa

This may also be referred to as ‘keto rash’ in mainstream media articles. A helpful summary can be found on the Dr. Andreas Eenfeldt – Diet Doctor website: Keto Rash – Why You May Itch on Low Carb, and What to Do About It. Diet Doctor. 

  1. Mufti A, Mirali S, Abduelmula A, et al. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in prurigo pigmentosa (Nagashima disease): A systematic review of the literature. JAAD Int. 2021;3:79-87. doi:10.1016/j.jdin.2021.03.00
  2.  Goh S, Adawiyah J, Md Nor N, Yap F, Ch’ng P, Chang C. Skin eruption induced by dieting – an underdiagnosed skin disease in Malaysia. Malays Fam Physician. 2019;14(1):42-46. PMID: 31289632
  3. MACO MW, Lee E, Wu Y, Lee R. Treatment of Prurigo Pigmentosa with Diet Modification: A Medical Case Study. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2018;77(5):114-117. PMID: 29761029
  4. Almaani N, Al-Tarawneh AH, Msallam H. Prurigo Pigmentosa: A Clinicopathological Report of Three Middle Eastern Patients. Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine. 2018 doi:10.1155/2018/9406797
  5. Oh YJ, Lee M-H. Prurigo pigmentosa: a clinicopathologic study of 16 cases. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2012;26(9):1149-1153. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04263.x ABSTRACT
  6. Onaygil E, Songur A, Kutlubay Z, Demirkesen C. Early stage prurigo pigmentosa: a case report. TJPATH. 2015. doi:10.5146/tjpath.2015.01333
  7. Alshaya MA, Turkmani MG, Alissa AM. Prurigo pigmentosa following ketogenic diet and bariatric surgery: A growing association. JAAD Case Reports. 2019;5(6):504-507. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2019.03.011
  8. Abbass M, Abiad F, Abbas O. Prurigo Pigmentosa After Bariatric Surgery. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(7):796-797. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0247 
  9. Al-Dawsari NA, Al-Essa A, Shahab R, Raslan W. Prurigo pigmentosa following laparoscopic gastric sleeve. Dermatology Online Journal. 2019;25(5).


There is only one study referring to Incident Atrial Fibrillation currently, and some controversy over the methodology. The carbohydrate content exceeds what would be clinically described as low carb; only two Food Frequency Questionnaires (known to be problematic) were used over the study duration (~22yrs); presence of confounders.

A commentary on these issues can be found on the Dr. Andreas Eenfeldt – Diet Doctor website: Inaccurate news stories suggest low carb causes atrial fibrillation. Diet Doctor

  1. Zhang Shaozhao, Zhuang Xiaodong, Lin Xiaoyu, et al. Low‐Carbohydrate Diets and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019;8(9):e011955. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.011955

In the following case study authors concluded that the implementation of a ketogenic diet triggered an increased number of arrhythmia events in a patient with congenital Long QT syndrome (LQTS) 

  1. Sudhakaran S, Yazdani L, Wheelan KR, Rao PK. The ketogenic diet and the QT interval. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2019;33(1):77-79. doi:10.1080/08998280.2019.1664220


In this case report two children are presented with growth failure using carbohydrate restriction in type 1 diabetes. In both cases they present as hypocaloric with no details apart from macronutrient percentage. These cases highlight the necessity of a well formulated diet in children along with sufficient monitoring and diet adjustments as required.

  1. Franceschi R, Rizzardi C, Cauvin V, Berchielli F, Liguori A, Soffiati M. Carbohydrate Restriction and Growth Failure in Two Children with Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report. DDE. Published online October 6, 2020:1-5. doi:10.1159/000510819

The following study demonstrates that a nutritionally sufficient meal plan can be implemented using a low carbohydrate approach.

  1. Zinn, C. et al. (2022) ‘Assessing the Nutrient Status of Low Carbohydrate, High-Fat (LCHF) Meal Plans in Children: A Hypothetical Case Study Design’, Nutrients, 14(8), p. 1598. doi:10.3390/nu14081598.

Studies in children with epilepsy constitute the majority of the data on this subject. Of note is that the medical ketogenic diet for epilepsy may be lower in protein due to high ketones being of therapeutic importance for seizure control (often 4:1 or 3:1 ratios). 

In the following paper, appropriate growth was maintained in the ketogenic diet group consisting of participants less than 2 years old, which is a critical period for growth.

  1. Liu Y, Wan J, Gao Z, Xu L, Kong L. Ketogenic diet and growth in Chinese infants with refractory epilepsy. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2021;30(1):113-121. doi:10.6133/apjcn.202103_30(1).0014

This study of older children with epilepsy or GLUT1-DS found the majority of participants (80%) maintained or improved their weight at one year follow-up.

  1. Ferraris C, Guglielmetti M, Pasca L, et al. Impact of the Ketogenic Diet on Linear Growth in Children: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of 34 Cases. Nutrients. 2019;11(7). doi:10.3390/nu11071442

Optic Neuropathy

For completeness the following articles are included. In both these cases a thiamine deficiency was found and recovery of optic nerve function occurred with appropriate treatment.

  1. Hoyt CS, Billson FA. Optic neuropathy in ketogenic diet. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1979;63(3):191-194. doi:10.1136/bjo.63.3.191 PDF
  2. Hoyt CS, Billson FA. Low-carbohydrate diet optic neuropathy. Med J Aust. 1977;1(3):65-66. PMID: 840092


There are many books which may be useful in guiding our low carb journey, both as clinicians and patients. The list below is a sample and by no means exhaustive. 

  1. Bernstein, R. (2003) Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars Revised & Updated. Little, Brown and Company; Revised, Subsequent edition
  2. Bikman B, Fung J. Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease―and How to Fight It. BenBella Books; 2020.
  3. Cummins, I., Gerber J. (2018) Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Longevity. Victory Belt Publishing
  4. Feinman DRD. Nutrition in Crisis: Flawed Studies, Misleading Advice, and the Real Science of Human Metabolism. Illustrated edition. Chelsea Green Publishing; 2019.
  5. Fung, J. (2016). The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss. Melbourne, Australia: Scribe Publications
  6. Fung, J., Moore, J. (2016). The Complete Guide to Fasting: Heal Your Body Through Intermittent, Alternate-Day, and Extended Fasting. Las Vegas, Nevada: Victory Belt Publishing
  7. Harcombe, Z. (2010). The Obesity Epidemic: What caused it? How can we stop it? Cwmbran, United Kingdom: Columbus Publishing Ltd
  8. Herschede AM. Grit Pregnancies: How to Have a Healthy Pregnancy and Normal Blood Sugars with Type 1 Diabetes. Allison Herschede; 2021. 
  9. Kraft, J. (2008). Diabetes Epidemic & You. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing. 
  10. Lustig, R. (2013) Fat Chance: The bitter truth about sugar. Fourth Estate
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